Air pollution control equipment is a vital component of industrial processes that cannot be neglected. This equipment removes Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) from the air, like sulfuric gases, fumes, odors and vapors. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), limit the type and quantity of VOCs and HAPs industrial manufacturing facilities may emit during processing. It’s important to respect these regulations not only from a business standpoint, but from the perspective of community health and ethics. VOCs and HAPs pose a threat to the environment, local ecosystems and human health. They result, for example, in acid rain, smog, carbon emissions and overall climate change. Furthermore, 188 regulated HAPs have been definitely linked or are suspected to be linked to cancer, birth defects and other serious problems.
To monitor, control and report emissions, many facilities use tools called Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). They also install emission control system, which help them keep air pollution output below their designated levels. Depending on the nature of the job, industrial facilities may employ mist collectors, electrostatic precipitators, odor control systems, wet scrubbers, dry scrubbers or other air filtration systems. Read More…
Another common system is the oxidizer, which breaks up pollutants and remakes them into non-toxic carbon, by burning them at the heart of the machine. Oxidizers may be catalytic or thermal. Catalytic oxidizers use high heat or elemental additives to burn VOCs, while thermal oxidizers wash dirty air in platinum or palladium, which causes the oxygen to separate from VOCs. The latter process creates non-toxic byproducts like nitrogen and oxygen. Both processes may be either regenerative or recuperative. This is a helpful feature for agricultural, mining/geo-chemical, pharma, auto and other industrial manufacturing facilities that lose money from running pollution control systems both inside and outside, because it helps them recycle heat and cut costs. Regenerative oxidizers utilize ceramic heat transfer beds to recover as much energy released during oxidation as they can. Usually this mounts to 90% to 95%. Recuperative oxidizers, on the other hand, employ shells, tubes, plates or some other conventional heat exchanger to preheat polluted gas in an energy recovery chamber. By using energy released by oxidized VOCs, they are able to sustain themselves.
To help clean up nitrogen oxide, certain controls include selective catalytic reduction processes. These regulate nitrogen oxides emissions from non-moving sources, and from selective non-catalytic reduction, a process that changes oxides of nitrogen (NOx) into molecular nitrogen (N2). If VOCs have recovery value, carbon adsorption, scrubbing and condensation may be employed to recuperate materials. If not, technicians may employ thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation or biofiltration.
Thanks to the dedication of many, in the last several years, VOC and HAP emissions have gone down significantly. However, carbon emissions are now entering the foreground of concern, due to the emergence of global climate change. Therefore, lawmakers and environmentalists are now working together to create legislation that will help lower carbon emissions as much as possible. Given these new and up-and-coming regulations, manufacturers may need to be prepared to find alternatives to incinerators and oxidizers. These alternatives may include elements of filtering systems like electrostatic precipitators, mist collectors, wet scrubbers and dry scrubbers.
Air Pollution Monitoring: Methods and Selection of Equipment
The Clean Air Act in 1990, made it mandatory to monitor some specific pollutants, periodically, at various stationary sources. To comply with monitoring requirements and the regulatory limits, monitoring equipment is as important as pollution control equipment. Monitoring equipment is helpful in keeping data concerning particulate matter and gaseous pollutants, which is important for getting permits for new and existing facilities and for audit purpose. Moreover, emissions monitoring is essential to monitor health and safety within the plant and to assess the efficiency of the pollution control device.
Monitoring equipment, basically, are various types of instrumentation that are utilized for measuring the gaseous compounds and particulate matter concentration at various points. Additionally, they observe the physical properties of a waste gas stream, such as opacity.
According to the Compliance Assurance Monitoring (CAM) Rule, to monitor compliance with regulations, there are two options: continuous emissions monitoring and Parametric Monitoring.
Continuous Emissions Monitoring
In continuous emissions monitoring, as the name implies, the concentration of pollutants is measured directly at a duct or stack, on a continuous basis, sometimes on a periodic basis.
This type of monitoring is done at large sources of pollution, which are required under New Source Performance Standard (NSPS), National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) and New Source Review (NSR), to monitor emission. Additionally, under some of the EPA regulations, continuous emissions monitoring is required.
In parametric monitoring, emissions are measured by keeping an eye on key parameters, which are linked to the functioning status of process equipment or air pollution control equipment. Parametric monitoring is based on the concept that the control parameters being monitored and pollutant emission levels are correlated.
Because of the CAM rule, parametric monitoring is getting some traction, as parametric monitoring is proving to be a more flexible, as well as less expensive options, to demonstrate compliance.
How to choose monitoring equipment
Choosing the appropriate monitoring equipment or method not just involves the performance comparisons and basic cost, as operational environment and conditions differ from one facility to another, for a given classified source. Monitoring equipment is unique to each installation and facility, and the selection is based on number of considerations.
- As the physical and chemical properties of the pollutant and waste gas stream vary, it is important to consider them, before making any choice.
- Monitoring equipment must complement the system it will be used for; check the permitting limits or regulatory limits, and any other associated reporting requirements, thoroughly.
- The selection of equipment also depends on method and location of collecting, processing, and disposing samples
- They should meet accuracy and calibration requirements
- For choosing monitoring equipment, quality is the biggest factor; assure that the quality meets the quality control requirements
- All equipment need maintenance, make sure maintenance service is easy to get
- The monitoring should not interfere with safety and management system
All these factors will help to buy monitoring equipment that will help perform as per the requirements over time.
Reasons Behind the Increase in Air and Water Pollution
The abuse and unplanned use of natural resources, unabated production of greenhouse gases, reduction in green cover of the planet, and increasing industrialization are some of the most common reasons for the mammoth problem of pollution. Out of these, industrialization and deforestation are two of the biggest culprits of this enormous issue that shows no sign of stopping. Between these two, industrialization alone contributes heavily to the increasing air, water and soil pollution.
Until the last century, when not many industries were there, air and water pollution and the depletion of the ozone layer were not really a distress. However, with rising industrialization came the overexploitation of natural resources such as wood, coal, water, land, etc. The contribution of industrial advancements for the human progression cannot be denied, but its involvement in the increase of pollution can also not be overlooked.
Name any industry, and you will realize the extent of harmful stuff it sends into the environment through its processes. Petroleum, energy production, coal and metal mining, chemical, and waste management industries are a few of the big league players that have played a considerable role in polluting the environment.
Every industrial procedure – including sourcing of raw materials, manufacturing of the final product, maintenance of the site and machinery, and transporting of the product to different locations – results in some kind of pollution. The burning of fossil fuel releases volatile hydrocarbons, burning wood and coal as fuel produces carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide, and automobiles are also a key source of harmful carbon. Each industrial activity generates emissions that directly pollute the air, soil, or water.
At present, industrialization is not just limited to a few developed countries. There are increased industrial activities in emerging economies and they are making their contribution at their level, whether significant or insignificant.
Industrial procedures, apart from the products, yield carbon dioxide, sulfur, greenhouse gases, sending a somber threat to the environment and raising the level of pollution. Almost all industries use fresh water in some way and discharge polluted and untreated water. Although many manufacturing businesses have shown a keen interest in water and air pollution control systems, this practice should be promoted and spread in order to shrink the effect of particulates on the environment.
Saying that industries are not concerned about their emission would be unfair. In the past decade, the adoption of emission control systems, air filters, wet and air scrubbers, and other pollution control devices has increased, but again, there is a need to promote this practice even further.
Pollution is a reason why the year 2016 has been recorded to be the warmest so far.
By moving to new, intelligent technologies, industries can decrease the release of harmful gases. These methods will control the spread of air and water pollution, while sparing the whatsoever natural resources are available for our future generations.
Devices like air filters, scrubbers, and emission controllers can treat the supply of exhaust stream, and help a manufacturing avoid destroying the environment any more.
Seven Facts about Air Pollution and Seven Tips to Control Air Pollution
Pollution is no longer a region-specific problem—it has become a global phenomenon. Centuries of unrestricted industrial activities, nonstop destruction of forests, and unhindered exploitation of natural resources have made pollution a deadly reality. Global warming is just one fallout. Meanwhile, air, soil, and water pollution have reached peak levels. In the following paragraphs, we list seven over whelming facts about air and water pollution.
- We breathe gallons of pollution every day. At an average, an individual consumes more than 3,000 gallons of air each day. And, with that air, we also consume a lot of pollution.
- Breathing polluted air everyday takes away about 22-23months from your life. In highly populated cities, breathing equates to smoking many cigarettes per day.
- Air pollution is more dangerous than water pollution. Contaminants spread in air faster than they do in water and soil. Polluted water, but not air, can be identified and treated easily.
- The initiation of air pollution can be sourced back to the beginning of the industrial revolution. Industries contributed in the progression of the world economy, as well as pollution. Burning fuel released from industrial process equipment, and the production and maintenance of industrial procedures all contribute to pollution.
- Beijing cough is a disease caused by air pollution.
- Heavy crude oil results in more air pollution that the light variant does.
- In Manila, Philippines, about 80% of pollution is caused by vehicles.
Dealing with pollution is an equal responsibility of every human and company. If you are worried about the growing and spreading effects of pollution, consider the follow seven prevention tips.
- Use public transport whenever possible. A bus can carry about 40to50people at a time, while a car only one to four. As stated in one the above facts, vehicles contribute to a large share of air pollution, you bus transportation is healthier for the environment.
- Use smart air filtration technology. Indoor areas are also not safe from pollution. You can consider getting yourself an indoor air pollution control system. These systems keep your home environment clean, while ensuring a safe living for you and your loved ones.
- Adopt intelligent waste management planning. Bad habits of people are a reason behind the rise in air pollution. You should discard your waste responsibly and according to governmental guidelines.
- Industries should follow proper waste management planning to avoid the emission of harmful chemicals and toxins into the environment.
- Adopt green practices. Both people and businesses should follow procedures that do not have any aftermath on the environment.
- Manufacturing businesses should use modern pollution control machines, such as air and wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, thermal oxidizers, etc. to curb pollution from their processes.
- Prepare a maintenance schedule of pollution control equipment and perform maintenance according to it. Industrial-and home-based pollution control devices should be maintained regularly to get the best performance.